The prerequisite for starting a scripTURal year is finding yellowish-green grained ABIB [abeeb] (incorrectly known as aviv) barley in the Land of ISHaRaAL, to be parched with fire on the Day of First-Harvests (aka First-Fruits). Years currently do not start every 12 lunar months nor from the Spring Equinox: they are determined by the agricultural year which is the average of a solar year and a lunar year. A sequence of about five agricultural years that are 12 lunar months long each, are averaged out by one 13-lunar-monthed agricultural year. Because of this, it is important to check the state of the barley crops at the end of the 12th month. If the barley is ABIB at this time, then the following New Moon is CHaDaSH E ABIB ("New Moon of the ABIB"). If the barley is still immature, we must wait another month and then check the barley again at the end of the 13th month. Also: searching for ABIB is easy just like looking for the crescent moon; droughts are and never were an obstacle to finding one AIPE (ephah) (23 L) of ABIB barley; and in ancient times barley ripened at the same time across ISHaRaAL (Israel) and as the time it ripens in and around IRUSHaLIM today.
WHY Do We Need ABIB Barley to Start a Year?
If the barley grains are not yellowish-green (ABIB) then the wave-sheaf-barley offering cannot be performed on the Sunday after PaXaCH (Passover).
Lev 23:10 “Speak to the children of ISHaRaAL, and you shall say to them, ‘When you come into the land which I give you, and shall reap its harvest, then you shall bring a sheaf of the first-fruits of your harvest to the priest.
The sheaf of ABIB barley was parched (dry-roasted) on the altar. ABIB barley is too soft to be ground into flour to make bread, so it was dry roasted over the fire to make edible.
The people of ISHaRaAL were not supposed to eat toasted grain or bread from their new harvest until the Day of First-Fruit-Harvests. It was OK for them to eat last year's (stored) grain since they were commanded to eat unleavened bread for seven days; these days started before the Day of First-Fruit-Harvests.
Also IEUESHUO taught His taught ones on the night before PaXaCH to take and eat bread in remembrance of
Him; this night was several days (more than the three that IEUESHUO was physically dead) before the Day of First-Fruit-Harvests.
The sheaf of ABIB barley symbolises the resurrection of IEUESHUO E MaSHICH. The ABIB barley is the first of the grain-harvest to be harvested. The grain-harvest represents the gathering-in of the assembly (aka church).
WHERE is ABIB Mentioned in ScripTURE?
ABIB (Strongs #24: AHLB#: 1002-B [b]) is mentioned eight times in six verses of the Hebrew Westminster (Massoritic) Leningrad Codex:
1) Ex 9:31 And the flax and the barley were smitten, for the barley was pollinated [ABIB], and the flax was in pod;
2) Ex 13:4 Today you are going forth in the month of ABIB.
3) Ex 23:15 you shall observe the celebration of unleavened cakes; seven days shall you eat unleavened cakes, just as I instructed you, at the appointed time in the month ABIB, for in it you went forth from MaTSaRIM (Egypt), and none shall appear before Me empty-handed:
4) Ex 34:18 The celebration of unleavened cakes shall you observe seven days. You shall eat unleavened cakes just as I have instructed you for the appointed time in the month of ABIB, for in the month of ABIB you came forth from MaTSaRIM.
5) Lv 2:14 Yet if you bring near an approach present of firstfruits to IEUE, you shall bring near pollinated [ABIB] ears toasted by fire, groats of the crop, as the approach present of your firstfruits.
6) Dt 16:1 You are to observe the month of ABIB and prepare a passover to IEUE your ALEIM, for in the month of ABIB IEUE your ALEIM brought you forth from MaTSaRIM by night.
What IS ABIB?
ABIB is the Ancient OBaRIT (Hebrew) word for “yellowish-green grain” made yellow due to its pollination (with yellow pollen). The first cereal grain that went this colour in ancient agricultural ISHaRaAL was barley, because barley has a preference for the lower temperatures observed during the end of winter-early spring. When the grain went this colour (yellowish-green) it was ready (ripe enough) to be parched on fire for the first-fruit-harvest offering. At this stage also it is still able to be split in half with a thumb nail. However it is not ripe enough to be ground into flour as it is when it goes a yellowish-brown colour (when it can not be dented by a thumb nail).
The barley grains are dark green from the time they are first formed until just before they start turning ripe (the ABIB stage). This is why ABIB does not just mean "green-grain" as stated in, for example, the Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible (AHLB) (# 1002-B [b]), but rather, "yellowish-green" grain, as seen in the picture above on the left. For more information about the growth stages of barley, please see http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/Cropsystems/DC2548.html and http://www.blackthornarable.co.uk/photography/blycrops.htm#thumb
The Modern Jewish Hebrew month called "Aviv", and also their word for Spring is named after the (event of) ABIB. This is evidence that ancient Hebrew years were primarily agricultural: and that solar and lunar years were secondary to these.
The image below shows the agricultural year with reference to (pagan) Jewish Hebrew month names. However it does accurately show: the month of ABIB, the major crops that are harvested, the variation of climate, and, IEUE's appointed times including high shabat rest days and holy meetings. Click to enlarge.
How do We SAY "ABIB"?
ABIB is pronounced as [abeeb]. It's Ancient Hebrew letters are: AL, BaT, ID, and BaT. It's Modern Jewish Hebrew letters are aleph, bet, yod, and bet. AL was pronounced as "ah". BaT was pronounced as "B", and ID was pronounced as "ee".
In Modern Jewish Hebrew the pronunciation is aviv [aveev]. This is because the letter named BaT has had a V sound superimposed on it via the influence of Spain (Spanish). There was no V sound in Ancient Hebrew.
Why We Cannot CURRENTLY Use LUNAR MONTHS (Lunations) ONLY to Determine Year-Starts
We cannot currently use lunar months to determine year starts because a lunar year is shorter than an agricultural year; and the appointed times of holy meetings of IEUE correlate to agricultural events. Crops depend on both the sun (daily, annual and other cycles such as sunspots) and moon (the lunar cycle) (as used in lunar agriculture), ie two of the luminaries (the brightest ones) that determine the signs, appointments, days and years (Gen 1:14—16); thus crops indirectly but almost certainly help us indentify the signs, appointments, days and years.
Lunar agriculture notably teaches that harvesting of all crops should be done in the third quarter (day 15 to day 22.5) of each lunation. This is almost exactly when both the Feast of Unleavened Bread and the Feast of XaKUT (Sukkot) take place in their respective months: one and seven; both starting on the 15th month and ending on the 22nd and 23rd respectively.
IEUE's salvation plan has been most prominently symbolised by the fruits of the Land of ISHaRaAL, so the agricultural year must take precedence over the other two types of years today.
There are three types of years today: solar (about 365.242199 days long), lunar (about 354.36705 days long) and agricultural (360 days long).
Before the Golden Kingdom of ISHaRaAL divided into Two Houses when the lunation was reduced to about 29.5 days, all three types of years were of the same length: 360 days. This is where we get the 360 degrees in a circle from. Months were 30-days long. Seasons were exactly 90 days long.
NaCH's (Noah's) months were 30 days long.
Also, King DUID (David) and King SHaLaME (Solomon) kept a 12 month year since they did their censuses in blocks of 12 months:
CLV 1Ch 27:1 And the sons of Israel, after their number, heads of the fathers, and princes of the thousands and of the hundreds, and their officers, those serving the king in any matter of the courses, that are coming in and going out month by month, throughout all months of the year--[are] in each course twenty and four thousand.
CLV 1Ki 4:7 And Solomon has twelve officers over all Israel, and they have sustained the king and his household--a month in the year is on each one for sustenance;
For this reason also MaSHE (Moses) only needed to use the moon in the wilderness to determine the start of years and not ABIB barley.
The ABIB barley (from the land of KaNON [Canaan]) wave offering was in part established to help believers calibrate years during this current period of astronomical and assembly (human) disarray that started after the moon shortened its lunation. Leviticus 23:10 says that the waving of the first sheaf of the first of the harvest was to be done “When you come into the land which I give you" [KaNON], not in Eastern Egypt or Sinai. IEUE knew that agricultural conditions in and near IRUSHaLIM (Jerusalem) would be the same now as they were across the whole of ISHaRaAL; back when IEUE first told MaSHE to tell the children of ISHaRaAL to bring their first sheaf of their first-harvest and until the Golden Kingdom divided. IRUSHaLIM is the center of the Earth and universe.
After MaSHE, the ISHaRaALites continued to use mainly the moon for feast-timekeeping until the Two Houses of ISHaRaAL divided. Around the 8th century BC the Earth had a close encounter with Mars that sped up the moon (Missler). This was around the time the Northern House was exiled, that is ie the Houses (ie 12 Tribes) were physically broken apart, from the land of ISHaRaAL. Because the 12 tribes were divided IEUE caused the moon to speed up and make disharmony in the sky, just as there was disharmony within the land and people of ISHaRaAL. The 12 months that represented the 12 tribes no longer were clearly seen. When the ASHURian (Assyians) took the Northern House captive there were signs in the sky (planets and stars, which is why IEUE created these in BaRaASHIT [Genesis]). Each tribe was represented by a month so when a month was made incomplete (shortened and inadequate) then each tribe became incomplete and inadequate spiritually until the latter days.
"Many ancient cultures used the same type of 360 day calendar until things changed in around the 8th century BCE. According to Chuck Missler (http://www.khouse.org/6640/BP047/) this change was brought on by a close flyby from Mars, which used to have a 720 day orbit bringing it close to Earth twice per year (the “Ides of March” was one of them)." Quote from Know the Future by Tim McHyde.
ISHaRaAL has the moon at her feet in Revelation 12:1:
Rev 12:1 And a great sign was seen in the heaven: a woman clad with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars.
When she (most of the living members of the 144000—representatives from each of the 12 tribes) is united and gathered in the Land of ISHaRaAL (at the start of the Great Tribulation) lunations will revert to the ancient 30-days: giving the Earth an exact 42 month/1260 day and 3.5 year time of distress.
During the great tribulation lunations will again be able to be used since the moon's orbit will be reset back again to 30 days exactly, by Earth's close encounter of Planet X. The Moon’s orbital speed will slow down to make it’s lunation exactly 30 days. At the moment the moon is orbiting faster than it used to. Revelation says that we will have a 360 day year / 30 day month calendar. For more on this see http://www.escapeallthesethings.com/revelation-calendar-360-30-day-....
Again, once the living members of the 144000 are gathered in ISHaRaAL months will become 30 days again. A sample of each of the12 tribes will be gathered to their rightful abode so there will again be 12 righteous and restored months. 1260 days will be 3.5 years. 1260 days will also be 42 months, again. Revelation has three distinct time units triple confirming that the 1260 days are not 1260 years. This is further proof for a return and gathering of the tribes before the great tribulation, and thus before the millennium. The woman (assembly) or 12 tribes of ISHaRaAL have the moon at her feet completely at this stage because it is she, and her completeness and oneness: that determines and maintains the proper length of a month.
Currently there are about 29.530588 days in one lunation (month), and not 30 days. 29.530588 multiplied by 12 gives 354.36705 days. This is called one lunar year.
For every five agricultural years (1800 days) we have 61 lunar (29.5-day) months plus or minus a day. Before the Two Houses split there were only (and exactly) 60 lunar months in five agricultural years.
This has led to the current observance of five 12-month agricultural years followed by one 13-month agricultural year; to give an average agricultural year of 12.2 lunar months (360 days—just like in the "good" old days).
If we used only lunations (12 per year) to determine the start of a year then we would end up having XaKUT [xakoot] (incorrectly known as sukkot) in spring and not autumn which is when it should be) every 36 years! This violates the plan of restoration and salvation of the Earth and its people that IEUE has modeled on an agricultural year, and would make all seasonal prophetic scriptures redundant.
Nullify the seasons and we nullify the stages of the salvation of mankind. ABIB barley is the first of the crops to ripen, the first of the firstfruits. It is the type and shadow of IEUESHUO E MaSHICH. The remainder of the grains harvested represent the assembly (the entire 144000) who will be gathered also on Mt TSIUN [tsioon] (incorrectly known as Zion) on one future Day of SHaBUOUT [shaboo-oh-oot] (incorrectly known as shavuot/pentecost) after their resurrection.
Grain is actually fruit with a hard outer layer (a "caryopses"), and is not a nut, although it has a seed inside it's hard shell. A nut is just a seed alone. IEUESHUO and the rest of the firstfruits (grains) will be hard. They will be resilient since they are used to "dying daily", and impaling the flesh.
On the other hand, fleshy fruits are softer. The great multitude of Revelation are softer than the firstfruits: they are the fleshy fruits. Many of them need signs and wonders, the fear of natural catastrophes (Planet X), and a much less tainted and evil world to be able to receive and stand in the good news (New Covenant) of IEUESHUO E MaSHICH.
Why We Cannot CURRENTLY Use the SPRING EQUINOX to Determine Year-Starts
We cannot currently use the spring equinox to determine year starts because sometimes the (sun and moon controlled) ABIB barley is not ready until more than one lunation after the spring equinox. The position of the sun in the sky at the spring equinox does not always correlate with the correct agricultural condition E ARaTS (the land) of ISHaRaAL needs to support the ABIB of barley.
Again, there are 365.242199 days in a solar year. This is the time it takes for the Sun to repeat its motion across the sky: not just from West to East but also its cycle of height variation in the sky. A solar year today is about 5.24 days longer than an agricultural year (and about 10 days longer than a lunar year).
Also determining the spring equinox involves much calculation and surveying of daylight hours. Equinoxes have the disadvantage of not being easily visible. Ancient Hebrew people had no need to observe equinoxes (or solstices) since their lunations were exactly 30 days long, seasons exactly 90 days and years exactly 360 days.
There is No Word for EQUINOX in ScripTURE
There is no word for "equinox" in scripTURE. Only feast-relevant points that recurred annually in the primary annual agricultural (and not merely solar cycle—again, agricultural and solar years once were in sync) are mentioned.
One of these points in time is the start of the agricultural year when King IUASH (Joash) had the host of Syria (ARaM) come up against him:
2Ch 24:23 And it comes to pass, at the turns [TaQUPaT] of the year, come up has the force of ARaM against him, and they come in unto IEUDE and IRUSHaLIM, and destroy all the heads of the people from the people, and all their spoil they have sent to the king of DaRaMaSHaQ [Damascus]
Here, the turns of the year is most likely the start of the agricultural year. This is probably as close as one can ever get to the time of the spring equinox (but not the equinox itself) being mentioned in scripTURE. This time once aligned with the spring equinox, and it will one day as well; but not at the moment.
TaQUPaT/Tekufot (that some say means "equinox" and mentioned about four times in scripTURE) just means "cycles of the sun"; in a plural sense: either of number, or once cycle of grandeur and/or character (there are two types of Ancient Hebrew plurals).
In 2 Chronicles 24:23 the TaQUPaT was one of grandeur and character; that of the start of the agricultural year (which once coincided with the solar year): in other words New Year's Day: which is still excessively noted and wrongly celebrated, albeit on the wrong day, by the pagan world today. It was probably their love of New Years Day and the Spring Equinox (they were Sun-worshippers) that drove the Syrians to invade IEUDE (Judah) and IRUSHaLIM: it was a day they could celebrate afterwards as the day they invaded one of the most powerful nations of the Earth.
The word for "revolutions" below is also the Ancient Hebrew TaQUPaT [taqoopat] (incorrectly known as tekufot) (H8622).
Ex 34:22 The celebration of weeks shall you observe for yourself, the firstfruits of the wheat harvest and the celebration of the ingathering at the revolutions [TaQUPaT] of the year.
TaQUPaT is the plural of the singular TaQUPE [taqoopeh] which means "circle" as "the circle of the sun around the Earth usually in reference to a time" according to the Ancient Hebrew lexicon of the Bible (AHLB #1431 J [il]).
In TEILIM (Psalms) King DUID (David) described: both of the Sun's daily and annual cycles also using the word TaQUPaT in both the numerical plural, and the plurality of grandeur and character: "nothing is being concealed from its warm penetration".
Ps 19:6 From the end of the heavens is its [the Sun's—verse 4] going forth, And its circlings [TaQUPaT] around goes on to their ends, So that nothing is being concealed from its warm penetration.
SHaMUT (Exodus) 34:22 tells tells us to observe the celebration of weeks every agricultural year, and the celebration of the ingathering (of the summer fruit) every agricultural year. TaQUPaT was used because it is the numerical plural indicating two different solar cycles (again, agricultural cycles once matched solar cycles) were being referred to:
1) The time it takes for the sun to circle the Earth between the start of the Feast of Weeks in one year, to the start of the same feast one agricultural year (360 days) later.
2) The time it takes for the sun to circle the Earth between the start of the Feast of XaKUT in one year, to the start of the same feast one agricultural year (360 days) later.
A variant of TaQUPaT (TaQaPUT) means cycle or term of pregancy: namely 40 weeks. This shows us that TaQUPE can does not just mean the cycle of the sun from Spring Equinox to Spring Equinox.
CLV 1Sa 1:20 and it comes to pass, at the revolution [TaQaPUT] of the days, that CHaNE (Hannah) conceives, and bears a son, and calls his name SHaMUAL, `for, from IEUE I have asked him.'
Searching for ABIB is EASY Just Like Looking for the Crescent Moon
Just like sighting a crescent moon is easy to start months, so is scouting the land for barley is relatively easy. IEUE has designed the climate of E ARaTS ISHaRaAL to be a THE INDICATOR of a year-starts.
DROUGHTS Are and Never Were an Obstacle to Finding One AIPE (ephah) (23 L) of ABIB Barley
Some may ask, "What happens in a drought - for example the one during Elijah's time and this year (2009)? How do you perform the wave-offering of the ABIB barley-sheaf then?"
The drought in ALIEU's (incorrectly known as Elijah's) time was only in SHaMaRUN (Samaria), and not in the entire Land of ancient ISHaRaAL.
CLV 1Ki 18:2 and ALIEU (Elijah) goes to appear unto ACHaAB. And the famine is severe in Samaria
Nevertheless, let's assume that there have been droughts in the entire Land of ISHaRaAL for a moment. Where does that leave us? Well, it still does not prove there was no barley available.
Firstly, the main reason why droughts would not have affected a barley harvest is because, "barley is a very resilient crop that can survive on minuscule amounts of water and much of the barley still reaches full maturity. Ancient varieties of barley were just as resilient as they are today. Proof of this can be found in the 2,000 year old sickles discovered in excavations at Qumran on the shore of the Dead Sea, which are on display at Israel's national museum. The Dead Sea valley is one of the driest places in Israel, yet even in this extremely dry environment, barley was grown in ancient times and harvested for food." Nehemia Gordon, Karaite Korner Newsletter No 395 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/karaite_korner_news/message/395
Secondly, there only needs to be one tenth of an AIPE [aypeh] (incorrectly know as ephah) of ABIB barley in each OMaR [sheaf] presented from each celebrant. This is only 23 litres or 21 US dry quarts. ScripTUREdoes not say how many celebrants must each present one OMaR to the priest. This means only one OMaR would be enough on behalf of the entire nation of ISHaRaAL strictly speaking.
There are significant End-Time implications for the meaning of this word OMaR. For more information on the OMaR see the Meaning of OMaR (Omer) in Ancient Hebrew.
The barley does not need to be planted deliberately (cultivated) for it to be harvested. The command is to, "bring a sheaf of the first-fruits of your harvest to the priest." (Lev 23:10). The Ancient Hebrew word for "harvest" which is "QaTSIR" (H7105) means the "time of severing the plants". The root of this word is "sever". Therefore there is a harvest even if only just ONE OMaR of stalks is severed.
Finally, another reason why even a drought would not have stopped the barley harvest was because a drought means there is scarcity, but not complete absence of water, and thus the same goes for plant life. "A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drought [Italics added by me]. Likewise "scarcity" ("ROB" in Ancient Hebrew) (H7458) means "hunger" in Ancient Hebrew. It does not mean fast (which is "TSUM" [H6685], to abstain from all food). Also, scarcity in English means a "lack of", it does not mean "none". Therefore in ALIEU's (Elijah's) drought there was food, grass and grain, but there was just little of it.
CLV 1Ki 18:2 and ALIEU (Elijah) goes to appear unto ACHaAB. And the famine [ROB - hunger] is severe in Samaria
The idea that there was grass is confirmed by ACHaAB (Ahab) who told OBaDIEU (Obadiah) to take the beasts at that time to scour "the land" to all of the springs, streams and rivers to find some grass. Barley is a type of grass also.
AV 1Ki 18:5 And Ahab said unto Obadiah, Go into the land, unto all fountains of water, and unto all brooks: peradventure we may find grass to save the horses and mules alive, that we lose not all the beasts.
This land was most likely just the land of Samaria because it does not state in scripTURE where the land the horses and mules went to. But even if the horses and mules went into the Land of ISHaRaAL there would have been an very good chance that one small amount of barley would have been found.
The borders of ancient ISHaRaAL are so large that it was almost certainly possible to find 23L of grass (even if it was WILD ABIB barley) even in this drought. See below for a map and description of the ancient area of ISHaRaAL (according to Yair Davidiy of Brit-Am).
"Cyprus belongs to Israel and was called The Island of Dan. The borders of Israel stretch from the Nile River to the Euphrates. Eastern Egypt, Sinai, Jordan, part of Saudi Arabaia, Kuwait, part of Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and part of Turkey are within the Biblical Borders of Israel; They are "Occupied Territory". Rabbi M.M. Schneerson of Lubavitch (Chabad) on the borders of Israel." http://www.britam.org/Questions
In Ancient Times Barley RIPENED at the SAME TIME Across ISHaRaAL (Israel) and as the Time it RIPENS In and Around IRUSHaLIM TODAY
Some say that, "Barley ripens at different times in Israel. It ripens up to a month later in the highlands than the barley in the lowlands."
This is only because in what was once called the ancient Land of ISHaRaAL (Israel), the percentage of land used for barley (wild or cultivated—again, the scripTUREs teach either is acceptable) today is much lower now than it used to be, and for hundreds of years: there has been a water shortage; and the land has been over-grazed (especially from goats) and worked making it: desertified, dry, prone to flash-flooding, and, sparse of flora, fauna and roots and humus. Much of ancient ISHaRaAL is “potentially quite fertile but they been ecologically abused by the Arabs who cut down all the trees and overgraze their goats who destroy the vegetation and cause an erosion of the top soil. The lack of greenery that results causes a heating of the land surface and less precipitation. Scripture indicates that the return of the Land Israelites will also entail a "healing" of the Land." http://britam.org/USAMatsor.html.
Over a thousand years ago the agricultural land-use was much higher. Also in King DUID’s (David’s) time most of the hills of ISHaRaAL were filled with forests and orchards. Trees are the key to more precipitation. The soil hence had a greater water content Israel-wide. This in turn made the climate much more consistent across Israel.
Hence this made the barley ripen easily within about two weeks (from the sighting of the crescent moon to the Day of Frist-Harvests) Israel-wide—even as far as Eastern Egypt and Sinai—which were included in the boundaries of Ancient ISHaRaAL (http://www.britam.org/Questions/QuesLand.html).
It is unscientific, unwise and rash to extrapolate backwards all climatic and agricultural conditions today in Israel and assume they were the same as today. Careful analysis of historic agricultural conditions ought to be done before anyone makes these types of assumptions.
Again, the ABIB barley (from the land of KaNON [Canaan]) wave offering was in part established to help believers calibrate years during this current period of astronomical and assembly (human) disarray that started after the moon shortened its lunation. Leviticus 23:10 says that the waving of the first sheaf of the first of the harvest was to be done “When you come into the land which I give you" [KaNON], not in Eastern Egypt or Sinai.
IEUE knew that agricultural conditions in and near IRUSHaLIM (Jerusalem) would be the same now as they were across the whole of ISHaRaAL; back when IEUE first told MaSHE to tell the children of ISHaRaAL to bring their first sheaf of their first-harvest and until the Golden Kingdom divided. IRUSHaLIM is the center of the Earth and universe.
We need to find ABIB barley to start our years.
Still Have More Questions? These Articles, Reports and Groups Will be Helpful
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Will the Real Equinox Please Stand Up
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59 Reasons Why Years Start with ABIB Barley
A defence of the timing of the year according to the appearance of aviv barley in the land of Israel
by Dina ben Mordechai
ABIB and Drought
by Nehemia Gordon of Karaite Korner
ABIB Search and Leap Years
by Nehemia Gordon of Karaite Korner
Current ABIB Report
For a current ABIB barley report please see Karaite Korner's Current Abib Report here http://groups.yahoo.com/group/karaite_korner_news/
Article Last Updated Aug 31, 2010.
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