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The Ancient Hebrew Day of Atonement (IUM CHaPaRIM [aka Yom Kippur]) Started at SUNRISE

IUM CHaPaRIM [eeh-oom chapareem] (the Ancient Hebrew Day of Atonement—incorrectly known as Yom Kippur) started at sunrise of the tenth period of light in the seventh month. This annual High SHaBaT (rest day) lasted for 12 hours, as all other annual high and weekly SHaBaTs do. Leviticus 23:32 does not teach a sunset day-start. This verse contradicts a plethora of other verses and ancient definitions of Hebrew words. It is highly likely that this verse has been doctored. It was the High SHaBaT preparation and regular daily fasting that started in the afternoon (not sunset) on the ninth day—not the actual High SHaBaT itself.

This article is best read after reading my article Days Begin at Sunrise. Please read this before going any further.

Key: [AH] = A bible version with all or most Ancient Hebrew proper nouns restored, and words in brackets added: by me.

The Controversial UIQaRA Leviticus 23:32

The majority of this discussion will hinge around the following single controversial verse of scripTURE:

TS98 (The Scriptures 98) UIQaRA Lev 23:32 ‘It is a SABBATH of REST to you, and you shall AFFLICT your beings. On the NINTH DAY of the month at EVENING, from EVENING to EVENING, you OBSERVE your SABBATH.

The word DAY (Ancient Hebrew IUM, [yoom], H3117) is not actually written in this verse in the Hebrew Westminster Leningrad Codex manuscript after the word NINTH. However the fact we are dealing with DAYS of the month in this verse is implied from the other instances in the scipTUREs where the word DAY is left out in a context involving days.

A Day Is Only 12 Hours Long

The Ancient Hebrew word for DAY is IUM [eeh-oom or yoom] (H3117). This is the period of 12 hours of LIGHT-TIME, and not the modern 24 hour day as we know it. These 12 hours are derived from the Ancient Hebrew pictographic definition of the word IUM, and from the word IUM's usage in an abundance of other scripTUREs. For much more evidence see the article Days Start at Sunrise.

Without reading the above article people usually insist that the DAY in UIQaRA Lev 23:32 is the ninth period (of 24 hours) of the month, that either starts at sunset or sunrise. This assumption has lead to much confusion and controversy.

Evening Actually Means Afternoon

The word EVENING is ORaB in Ancient Hebrew. It does NOT mean SUNSET or NIGHTTIME. It means AFTERNOON. There is no other word in Hebrew that means AFTERNOON except for ORaB. It is the time of the lengthening of shadows which is the period between MIDDAY and SUNSET. It is on average six hours in length across the Earth. In Ancient ISHaRaAL (incorrectly known as [ika] Israel) it was between 12 pm and 6 pm. ORaB is the time we start looking towards and heading for home. It is NOT translated as SUNSET anywhere in scripTURE. Again, please refer to Days Begin at Sunrise” for more detail.

There Is an Entirely Separate Phrase for Sunset

There is an entirely different phrase for SUNSET in Ancient Hebrew. It is BA (H935) E SHaMaSH (H8121).

The Word Sunset Is Not Mentioned in UIQaRA Chapter 23

The following instances of the use of BA E SHaMaSH relate to the time and life of MaSHE (ika Moses), which are set in the exact same era as UIQaRA Lev 23:32. This is important because if we are to start IUM CHaPaRIM at sunset we should expect to see the phrase BA E SHaMaSH in UIQaRA chapter 23, but we don't.

Concordant Literal Version (CLV) SHaMUT Exo 17:12 When the hands of Moses became heavy, they took a stone and placed it beneath him, and he sat on it. As for Aaron and Hur, they upheld his hands, from this side one and and from that side one. So it came to be that his hands were constant until SUNSET [BA E SHaMaSH]

CLV SHaMUT Exo 22:26 If you take in pledge, yea in pledge the raiment of your associate, previous to SUNSET [BA E SHaMaSH] you shall restore it to him,

CLV DaBaRIM Deut 11:30 Are they not across the Jordan, behind the SUNSET [BA E SHaMaSH] road into the country of the Canaanite, who is dwelling in the Aravah toward Gilgal beside the oaks of Moreh?

CLV DaNIAL Dan 6:14 Then the king, when he hears the matter, is enormously in bad odor to himself. As to Daniel he sets his heart to deliver him; thus till SUNSET [BA E SHaMaSH] he is exerting himself to rescue him.

(Emphasis [capitalisation] and words in brackets added.)

IUM CHaPaRIM Only One IUM (Daylight Period) Long

There is an EMPHATIC command to REST and HUMBLE OUR BEINGS on the TENTH IUM of the seventh month. This IUM is mentioned FIVE TIMES throughout UIQaRA chapter 23 (the same chapter as the verse in question in this article). This means that there is only ONE (SINGULAR) IUM we are to observe this High SHaBaT.

1) Lev 23:27 “On the tenth day [day is not written, but implied] of this seventh month is the Day [IUM] of Atonement. It shall be a set-apart gathering for you. And you shall afflict your beings, and shall bring an offering made by fire to IEUE.

2) and 3) Lev 23:28 “And you do no work on that same day [IUM], for it is the Day [IUM] of Atonement, to make atonement for you before IEUE your ALEIM.

4) Lev 23:29 “For any being who is not afflicted on that same day [IUM], he shall be cut off from his people.

5) Lev 23:30 “And any being who does any work on that same day [IUM], that being I shall destroy from the midst of his people.

All Other High SHaBaTs Are Only One IUM (Daylight Period) Long

ALL SIX OTHER ANNUAL High SHaBaTs are only 12 hours long. These SHaBaTS are all only to be observed for ONE IUM in the DAYTIME. This is because work in Ancient Hebrew times was almost always undertaken ONLY during the daylight hours. Olive oil for burning at night was expensive. This is the reason why we are commanded to refrain from working in the DAY [IUM] on these High SHaBaTs. All nighttimes throughout the year were by DEFAULT ideal rest-times, and so there was no need to command rest again for the NIGHTTIME [LILE] in the verses that explain how long we are to keep the High SHaBaTs -

The FIRST annual High SHaBaT called “MaTSE 1” is day one of the Festival of Unleavened Bread. Lev 23:6 ‘And on the fifteenth DAY [IUM] of this month is the Festival of Unleavened Bread to IEUE – seven DAYS [IMIM] you eat unleavened bread. Lev 23:7 ‘On the first DAY [IUM] you have a set-apart gathering, you do no servile work.

The SECOND annual High SHaBaT called “MaTSE 7” is day seven of the Festival of Unleavened Bread. Lev 23:8 ‘And you shall bring an offering made by fire to IEUE for seven DAYS [IMIM]. On the seventh DAY [IUM] is a set-apart gathering, you do no servile work.’ ”

The THIRD annual High SHaBaT called “SHaBUOUT” (ika Shavuot/Pentecost) lasts for ONE DAY (IUM). Lev 23:20 ‘And the priest shall wave them, besides the bread of the first-fruits, as a wave offering before IEUE, besides the two lambs. They are set-apart to IEUE for the priest. Lev 23:21 ‘And on this same DAY [IUM] you shall proclaim a set-apart gathering for yourselves, you do no servile work on it – a law forever in all your dwellings throughout your generations.

The FOURTH annual High SHaBaT called “IUM TaRUOE” (the Day of Trumpets) lasts for ONE DAY (IUM). Num 29:1 ‘And in the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you have a set-apart gathering, you do no servile work, it is a DAY [IUM] of blowing the trumpets for you.

The SIXTH annual High SHaBaT called “XaKUT 1” (the first day of the Festival of Booths) lasts for ONE DAY (IUM). Lev 23:34 “Speak to the children of ISHaRaAL, saying, ‘On the fifteenth DAY [IUM] of this seventh month is the Festival of Booths for seven DAYS [IMIM] to IEUE. Lev 23:35 ‘On the first DAY [IUM] is a set-apart gathering, you do no servile work.

The SEVENTH annual High SHaBaT called “XaKUT 8” (the eighth day of the Festival of Booths) lasts for ONE IUM. Lev 23:36 ‘For seven DAYS [IMIM] you bring an offering made by fire to IEUE. On the eighth DAY [IUM] there shall be a set-apart gathering for you, and you shall bring an offering made by fire to IEUE. It is a closing festival, you do no servile work.

The Weekly SHaBaT Is Only One IUM (Daylight Period) Long

Remembering the SHaBaT IUM is one of the ten commandments:

Young's Literal Translation (YLT) SHaMUT Exo 20:8 'Remember the Sabbath-day [IUM] to sanctify it;

(Word in brackets added.)

In preparing for the weekly SHaBaT, IEUE commanded ISHaRaAL to gather twice as much manna on the morning of the sixth IUM (day) because they were not to gather manna at all on the seventh IUM -

TS98 [AH] SHaMUT Exo 16:25 And MaSHE said, “Eat it TODAY [E IUM], for today is a SHaBaT to IEUE, today you do not find it in the field.

TS98 [AH] SHaMUT Exo 16:26 “Gather it six DAYS [IMIM], but on the SEVENTH DAY [IUM], WHICH IS THE SHaBaT, THERE IS NONE.”

TS98 [AH] SHaMUT Exo 16:27 And it came to be that some of the people went out on the seventh DAY [IUM] to gather, but they found none.

Why UIQaRA Leviticus 23:32 Is Suspicious

Here is UIQaRA Lev 23:32 rewritten with the above new definitions and observations in mind -

It is a SHaBaT of rest to you,
and you shall afflict your beings
On the ninth PERIOD OF 12 HOURS OF DAYLIGHT
of the month
at AFTERNOON,
from AFTERNOON to AFTERNOON,
you observe your SHaBaT

This version of the verse can be interpreted three ways:

1) If both the NINTH and TENTH afternoons of the daylight periods (IMIM, plural of IUM) of the month are included in the resting and humbling of beings, then IUM CHaPaRIM would last for 30 HOURS IN TOTAL. This is made up of six hours (from midday to sunset on the ninth day [IUM]), plus 24 hours (from sunset of the ninth day to sunset of the tenth day [IUM]).

This cannot be correct because this 30 hour period of resting and humbling our beings contradicts the EXPLICIT command to REST and HUMBLE OUR BEINGS on the tenth DAY (IUM) (SINGULAR).

Also for no clear reason these 30 hours exceed ALL SIX OTHER ANNUAL High SHaBaTs and weekly SHaBaTS, that are only 12 hours long.

In addition these 30 hours would include a dark NIGHTTIME period of 12 hours which is called LILE ([leeh-leh], H3915) in Ancient Hebrew. The pictographic meaning of LILE is "NO WORK, NO EXERTION" (see Days Begin at Sunrise for a lot more). This means all work ought to be done in the IUM (daylight hours). Our FUTURE (WHITE [NOT DARK] THRONE) JUDGEMENT will take place DURING THE DAYTIME when work is NORMALLY UNDERTAKEN, NOT THE NIGHTTIME. ALL will be revealed IN THE LIGHT. Our deeds will be assessed in PLAIN VIEW. Judging CANNOT BE DONE AT NIGHT when there is little light to shed on our deeds, NOR—in the time before and during IEUESHUO's better and ultimate sacrifice for sin—when the High Priest had a plethora of complex rituals including sacrifices to make blood coverings for sin (CHaPaRIM [ika Kipurim]) on the Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant. Nighttime (LILE) is by default rest-time so no future judging will be occurring during the tenth night of the new moon/month (nor the nighttime after the ninth IUM). We need to be sober (mainly THROUGH fasting) and alert and repentant (through resting also) because we will ONE DAY BE JUDGED over a period of 12 hours of daylight. We do not need to humble our beings and rest from work when we will not be ONE DAY JUDGED. The natural (type and shadow) comes before the spiritual (ultimate and better goal or event). This means that the reason why we humble our beings and rest on this day (the type and shadow) is to LOOK BACK at the ATONING SACRIFICE of IEUESHUO and LOOK FORWARD to prepare ourselves for the Great White Throne Judgement on a future IUM CHaPaRIM. (1Co 15:46 The spiritual, however, was not first, but the natural, and afterward the spiritual [The Scriptures 98]). If the SHaBaT lasted 30 HOURS then the COMMAND would state we are to keep the SHaBaT for ONE AND A HALF IMIM (12 hours X 1.5), but it does not.

2) If the humbling of our beings and resting starts in the MIDDLE of (during) the afternoon on the NINTH period of light at 3 pm AND continues to the SAME TIME (3 pm) on the TENTH period of light then this would make the IUM CHaPaRIM last for 24 hours.

This cannot be correct because the humbling of our beings and resting would stop THREE HOURS BEFORE SUNSET (before the end of the tenth IUM). This would break the command to rest and humble our beings ON (THROUGHOUT THE WHOLE) of the TENTH IUM (12 hour period of light) as prescribed in Lev 23:27—30. Also, again, these 24 hours are too long, for the same reasons as in 1).

3) If the humbling of our beings and resting starts at the END of the AFTERNOON on the NINTH period of LIGHTTIME (IUM), that is, at 6 pm SUNSET of the NINTH day, AND ended at SUNSET on the TENTH IUM then this would make IUM CHaPaRIM last for 24 hours.

Again this cannot be correct for the same reasons the 24 hours in interpretation number 2) is incorrect.

Possible Reasons Why Scribes Have Doctored This Verse

1) The afternoon (ORaB) of the NINTH day was most probably a TIME OF PREPARATION for IUM CHaPaRIM. This was just as there was a time of preparation before the weekly SHaBaT, and before other High annual SHaBaTs. This was evident in the time of IEUESHUO:

TS98 [AH] MaTaTIEU Mat 27:62 On the next day, WHICH WAS AFTER THE PREPARATION, the chief priests and Pharisees gathered together to Pilate,

TS98 [AH] Mark 15:42 And when evening had come, because it was the PREPARATION DAY, that is, the day before the SHaBaT,

TS98 [AH] Luke 23:54 And it was PREPARATION DAY, and the SHaBaT was approaching.

TS98 [AH] IEUCHaNaN John 19:14 And it was the PREPARATION DAY of the PASSOVER WEEK, and about the sixth hour. And he said to the IEUDIM, “See your Sovereign!”

TS98 [AH] IEUCHaNaN John 19:31 Therefore, since it was the PREPARATION DAY, that the bodies should not remain on the stake on the SHaBaT – for THAT SHaBaT WAS A HIGH ONE – the IEUDIM asked Pilate to have their legs broken, and that they be taken away.

TS98 [AH] IEUCHaNaN John 19:42 There, then, because of the PREPARATION DAY of the IEUDIM, they laid IEUESHUO, because the tomb was near.

IEUXaP (ika Joseph) of Arimathea found himself in this PERIOD OF PREPARATION for the SHaBaT (the afternoon before the SHaBaT day began). IEUXaP knew that the body of IEUESHUO could not be left hanging overnight according to the Law of IEUE (Deut 21:22—23; Jos 8:29; Jos 10:26—27). Thus, he was forced to prepare the body of IEUESHUO for burial as quickly as possible.

The practice of preparing for the SHaBaT the afternoon before a SHaBaT can be traced back to at least the time of NaCHaMIEU (ika Nehemiah) (Neh 13:15—22). NaCHaMIEU forbade the gates of IRUSHaLIM (ika Jerusalem) to remain open to merchants after it had grown dark NOT because the SHaBaT began at SUNSET, but because there should be a due time of preparation in the AFTERNOON before the SHaBaT was to begin (on the following morning). NaCHaMIEU had ordered the gates be shut just after sunset (at night) and they were not to be opened "until the sun was hot", i.e. the IUM started on the SHaBaT IUM (day), and he did not want the SHaBaT profaned by merchants carrying in their wares and selling on the day of rest. The merchants undoubtedly traveled on the sixth day and arrived toward the end of the day (in the afternoon), so NaCHaMIEU simply shut the gates on them.

Around the time of NaCHaMIEU there were some paganised/Babalonianised IEUDIM (Jews) who also returned to Canaan from exile. As soon as they could started to change this oral “FENCE” law into a law of TURE (ika Torah). This new “written law” (of evening to evening [ORaB to ORaB/afternoon to afternoon]) days then permeated into a string of other scripTUREs. A perfect example of this flow on effect can be seen in the BaRaASHIT (Genesis) account where we see a reversed order of “evening (afternoon) then morning”, when it should say “morning then evening (afternoon)”.

The book ''Supplementary Studies in the Calendars of Ancient Israel" by Julian Morgenstern (Former President of the Hebrew Union College), 1935, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio, said in p 25:

''LEV.23.32b, manifestly a very late addition to the legislation for Yom Yippur,which itself, as we have seen, was none too early, dates the celebration or this holy day with exact precision, "on the ninth of the month, at evening,from evening to evening. "Now it is certain that this did not mean to imply at all that the festival was actually celebrated on the ninth day of the month, for the statement is explicit, that it was to be observed upon the tenth, As we have seen, the original Yom Kippur legislation dealt with a day which extended from morning to morning .v.32b manifestly seeks to fix the exact period of festival according to the new system of reckoning the day". (emphasis added)

2) The ancient Hebrews did not eat at night. They stopped eating in the late afternoon and resumed in the morning—they did not eat during the 12 hours of darkness (LILE). Because of this, the true IUM CHaPaRIM fast in effect lasts over 36 hours. The ORaB (afternoon) finish of the SHaBaT in UIQaRA Lev 23:32 cannot be because of fasting because fasts are broken in the morning (thus why we have the word "break-fast").

Beware of the Scribes and Pharisees

A lot of people who have come out from Christianity who were once honouring the first day of the week rather than the seventh, now look to the State of Israel and IEUDIM (ika Jews), because the ex-Christians think these IEUDIM are keeping and have preserved the TaNaK/First Covenant to the letter.

However, what we really find is that many IEUDIM of today have their own traditions which, according to Talmud, are above scripTURE. There are some traditions within Judaism that are inherited from pagan nations that they were assimilated into during the exile in Babylon.

Some of these traditions include: naming months after false “gods” (Tammuz, Nisan, Siwan); the replacement (over time) of the Paleo Hebrew alphabet with Elephantine Aramaic, Nabataean Aramaic, Palmyrenean Aramaic, Qumran Hebrew and finally the phallic square script modern Hebrew alphabet; and last but not least the MOST EVIL practise of replacing the Name of IEUE with alternatives like “Adonai”, Ha Shem, Most High, etc. If they had the cheek to add unnecessary and perverted vowel-pointings on IEUE’s Name then we cannot rule out them swapping the position of two words, doctoring or inserting a few scripTUREs throughout the TURE.

IEUESHUO himself saved some of His most scathing rebukes for the “experts” in the TURE (Torah).

AV MaTaTIEU Mat 3:7 . But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

ScripTURE declares itself that a certain number of scribes of IEUDIM have worked falsehood.

TS98 [AH] IRaMIEU Jer 8:8 “How do you say, ‘We are wise, and the TURE of IEUE with us’? But look, THE FALSE PEN OF THE SCRIBE HAS WORKED FALSEHOOD.

TS98 [AH] IRaMIEU Jer 23:16 Thus said IEUE of hosts, “Do not listen to the words of the prophets who prophesy to you, they lead you astray. THEY SPEAK A VISION OF THEIR OWN HEART, NOT FROM THE MOUTH OF IEUE.

It should come as no surprise therefore that these scribes have not been able to resist the temptation to change the written word of IEUE to match their oral laws.

Conclusion

IUM CHaPaRIM [eeh-oom chapah-reem] (the Ancient Hebrew Day of Atonement) started at sunrise of the tenth period of light in the seventh month. This annual High SHaBaT (rest day) lasted for 12 hours, as all other annual high and weekly SHaBaTs do. Leviticus 23:32 does not teach a sunset day-start. This verse contradicts a plethora of other verses and ancient definitions of Hebrew words. It is highly likely that this verse has been doctored. It was the High SHaBaT preparation and regular daily fasting that started in the afternoon (not sunset) on the ninth day—not the actual High SHaBaT itself.

References

Days Begin at Sunrise (by yehweh.org)

A Case for the 12 Hour Sabbath

When Does The Sabbath Begin? Morning or Evening?

The Start of Shabbat

When Does a Day Start?

Article Last Updated Sep 16, 2013.


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